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Jumaat, 16 September 2011

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Chronology of <b>Sarawak</b> throughout the Brooke Era to Malaysia Day <b>...</b>

Posted: 15 Sep 2011 11:50 PM PDT

Posted on September 16, 2011, Friday

MOMENT IN HISTORY: Snapshots of Alexander Waddell departing Kuching and Sarawak leaders arriving in Kuching from KL.

1835 Beginning of the Sarawak Rebellion (against the Sultan of Brunei) led by Sarawak chief Datu Patinggi Ali.

1839 James Brooke arrives in Kuching on the Royalist carrying a message of thanks and presents from the Governor of Singapore to Rajah Muda Hassim in Sarawak.

He returns later and at the request of the Rajah Muda Hassim, the Sultan of Brunei, suppresses the rebellion.

Sept 21 1841 Brooke made rajah and governor of Sarawak after Rajah Muda Hassim dismisses Makota.

1845 The battle of Marudu Bay sees Brooke enlisting the help of the British Royal Navy in Singapore to defeat Sherif Osman, a famous pirate leader from North Borneo, effectively ending his piracy.

1846 Sultan of Brunei unhappy with the English and Brooke.

His fi rst move against Brooke is to order the killing of Englishmen and everybody in Brunei close to him, which includes Rajah Muda Hassim, his brother Badruddin and other leaders in Brunei.

Brooke attacks Brunei in retaliation. Assisted by the British navy, they capture the city.

The Sultan is allowed to return to his palace after surrendering.

In addition he gives Sarawak completely to Brooke and his heirs forever without payment of any more money.

In memory of Rajah Muda Hassim and Badruddin, he gives two streets in Kuching their names: Jalan Muda Hassim and Badruddin Road. Later, two of his nephews, James and Charles Johnson come to Sarawak to help him.

James is given the title Tuan Besar and later, Rajah Muda.

Charles Johnson is called the Tuan Muda and changes his name to Charles Brooke later when he becomes the second rajah of Sarawak.

1849 The Battle of Beting Maru sees Brooke defeating Iban pirate chief named Linggir.

He is helped by Captain Farquhar, his ships of the Royal Navy and by Malay and Dayak in prahus.

Altogether there are about 75 boats and 3,500 men on Brooke's side.

After a hard fight for several hours in the darkness, many pirate ships are sunk and hundreds of pirates killed or captured.

Brooke builds forts at Lingga and the mouth of the Skrang River on Batang Lupar to prevent more attacks.

1850 The US recognises Sarawak.

1852 Sarawak's territory expands.

1853 Sarawak extended to the Krian River.

1855 Brooke starts the Supreme Council made up of a small group of important officers in Sarawak to help him govern the country.

1857 Kuching sacked by Chinese rebels.

Six hundred Chinese miners from Bau sail down the Sarawak river at night to attack the Astana, the government buildings and the fort. Much of Kuching is razed to the ground except for the Chinese areas.

Brooke retaliates by enlisting the help of loyal Malays.

Charles sails quickly from Lingga with Iban soldiers.

The rebels retreat up river and are chased to Bau and to the Dutch Borneo border where they try to escape to Sambas and Pontianak.

As many as 1,000 Chinese rebels and their families are killed.

1861 After their defeat at sea, pirates move farther inland to continue attacking villages and capturing heads.

The chief leader is an Iban named Libau, better known as Rentap.

From his Bukit Sadok fort, he leads his men to attack villages or the Rajah's forts along the Batang Lupar.

After two unsuccessful counter-attacks, Charles becomes more determined to capture Rentap's fort at Bukit Sadok.

He builds a twelve-pounder cannon in Kuching which takes 500 of his men to pull through the jungle to Bukit Sadok. Once there, 60 of his strongest men lift the cannon on poles and carry it to the top of Bukit Sadok 3,000 feet high.

The cannon fi re penetrates Rentap's sturdy fort made of thick belian wood.

They discover, however, that the pirate leader has run off into the jungle and burn his fort.

Rentap is never to be heard of again.

1861 Sarawak is extended to Kidurong Point.

An offer by King Leopold I. of Belgium to purchase Sarawak is not successful.

1862 The Sarawak regiment.

Is created.

1863 Sarawak Dollar introduced.

1864 Britain recognises Sarawak as an independent principality.

1865 Charles forms the Council Negri which include people in the Supreme Council, other officers of the rajah's government and the most important native chiefs.

1867 Council Negri holds its first meeting in Sibu.

1868 James Brooke is succeeded by his nephew Charles.

Brooke returns to England due to ill health and dies there.

1869 Sarawak begins issuing postage stamps.

1870 Sarawak Gazette begins publication.

1872 The name of the town of 'Sarawak' is changed to Kuching where it reportedly gets its name from a small brook which ran into the Sarawak River near the present Chinese Chamber of Commerce Building at the end of Main Bazaar.

1883 Sarawak extended to Baram River.

1884 Great fi re of Kuching. 1885 Acquisition of the Limbang area, from Brunei.

1888 Sarawak declared a British protectorate.

1890 Limbang added to Sarawak.

1891 Opening of the Sarawak Museum.

The border between Sarawak and Dutch Borneo is decided at a meeting between Great Britain and the Netherlands (Holland) whereupon it is decided that the border would follow as closely as possible the line of the highest mountains between Sarawak and Dutch Borneo.

1901 Sarawak's population is 320,000 1903. Oil discovered in Sarawak.

1905 Acquisition of the Lawas Region, from Brunei.

Sarawak spans 47,000 square miles.

1912 Brooke Dry Dock opened. 1915 First railway line in Sarawak opened.

1915 Committee of Administration, seated in Kuching, established.

A 10-mile railway going south from Kuching fi rst used.

1917 Charles Vyner Brooke succeeds his father Charles as Rajah.

1924 Sarawak Penal Code introduced.

1925 Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China builds its first offi ce in Kuching to take care of the payment for Sarawak;s increasing business with other countries. 1931 Penghulu Asun leads a small rebellion among the Ibans against the government in the headwaters of the Kanowit, Entabai and Julau Rivers.

Vyner Brooke sends a police expedition up the Kanowit River and captures Asun and most of the other leaders.

Fort Brooke is built at Nanga Meluan on the Kanowit River.

Asun dies of old age in 1958. 1938 Kuching airport opened.

1941 Written constitution granted.

1941 Sarawak has a population of 490,000.

Dec 161941 Japanese occupy Miri.

Dec 19 1941 Japanese bomb Kuching.

Dec 24 1941 Japanese attack and capture Kuching.

1942-1945 Japanese occupation.

August 14 1945 Japanese surrender.

Sept 11 1945 Australian forces liberate Sarawak.

1945-1946 Sarawak is put under Australia's military administration.

May 1946 Council Negri meets to talk about cession to British government.

They agree that Sarawak should become a colony by a vote of 19 to 16.

July 1 1946 Government passes a law that accepts Sarawak as a British Crown Colony.

1946 Sarawak becomes British crown colony.

1949 Governor Duncan Stewart is assassinated.

1957 Sarawak gets a new constitution which changes the size and powers of the Council Negri.

Council Negri is increased to 45 members.

1959 First general election held in Sarawak.

1961 May 27 Tunku Abdul Rahman, Prime Minister of Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, at a Foreign Correspondents' Association of Southeast Asia press conference in Singapore, says the Federation of Malaya should have a close understanding with Britain and the people of Sarawak, Brunei and Sabah.

June 20 Sir Harold Macmillan, British Prime Minister, in a reply to a question in Parliament, says he is interested in the suggestion made by Tunku.

June 26 British offi cers from Singapore, Sarawak, Brunei and Sabah, consisting of governors, hold a meeting in Singapore until June 27.

July 1 Tunku Abdul Rahman accompanies the Yang Di- Pertuan Agong of Malaya to offi cially visit Brunei and Sarawak. July 9 Azahari (Partai Rakyat Brunei), Ong Kee Hui (Sarawak United People's Party) and Donald Stephens (Sabah) establish the United Front and disagrees with the proposal by Tunku Abdul Rahman and Britain.

July 12 Tunku Abdul Rahman exposes communist threats in South East Asia as an important factor in his proposal.

July 22 Lee Kuan Yew, Singapore chief minister, proposes that representatives from Sarawak, Brunei and Sabah present their views at the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association (CPA) on the Malaysia proposal.

July 28 Establishment of the Malaysia Solidarity Consultative Committee (MSCC) in Singapore during the CPA Conference.

August 12 First visit of leaders from Sarawak and Sabah – Datu Bandar Abang Mustapa, Temenggong Jugah, Donald Stephens and Dato Mustapha – to Malaya to see the progress for themselves.

Many such visits are organised for leaders in Sarawak and Sabah up till the formation of Malaysia.

August 24 MSCC holds its fi rst meeting in Jesselton (now Kota Kinabalu) in North Borneo (Sabah).

Brunei did not attend.

October 16 A motion for the formation of Malaysia is tabled in Parliament by Tunku Abdul Rahman and is approved.

November 23 Malaya negotiates with Britain to amend the Defence Agreement to expand British assistance when Malaysia is formed and to maintain their army camps.

Malaya and Britain negotiate and agree on the setting up of an investigative commission on the formation of Malaysia.

December Parti Barisan Anak Jati Sarawak (Barjasa) is registered.

Political parties formed earlier are the Sarawak United People's Party (SUPP) on 12 June 1959, Parti Negara Sarawak (Panas) on 9 April 1960 and Sarawak National Party (SNAP) on 10 April 1961.

These older parties are formed for local council and district elections that started in 1959.

December 18 MSCC holds its second meeting in Kuching.

Brunei attends only as observer.

December 20 The stand of Sarawak and Sabah shifts from opposition to bargaining on issues such as representation in parliament, freedom of religion, national language, civil service, immigration and economic development as stated in a press statement at the end of the MSCC meeting.

December 30 During a conference in Jakarta, Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI), the third largest communist party in the world, condemns the formation of Malaysia as a British neo-colonist ploy.

1962 January 4 British colonial government in Sarawak publishes a white paper on Sarawak's consent for Malaysia and the establishment of an investigative commission proposed by the governments of Malaya and Britain on November 23, 1961.

The White Paper is translated into local dialects and widely distributed in Sarawak.

January 8 MSCC holds its third meeting on constitution and politics in Kuala Lumpur.

A decision is reached to produce all the proceedings for public consumption just as the British colonial government had done in Sarawak. January 31 British colonial government in Sabah produces a white paper, similar to the one published in Sarawak.

It is also translated into local languages and distributed widely.

February 1 MSCC holds its fourth and last meeting in Singapore.

February 3 All MSCC delegates sign a memorandum of proposals and recommendations which is then published in Sarawak and Sabah.

The Cobbold Commission is set up to seek the views of the people of Sarawak and Sabah on the formation of Malaysia.

Members of the commission are Lord Cobbold (chairman), Sir Anthony Abell and Sir David Watheraton (British representatives) Dato Wong Pow and Ghazali Shafie (representatives of Malaya).

February 19 The Cobbold Commission arrives in Kuching to begin public hearings at 35 centres.

March 6 Deputy Prime Minister of Malaya, Tun Abdul Razak, said that at that time only Britain and the Philippines were involved in the territorial claims over Sabah.

April 17 The Cobbold Commission completes its task in Sarawak and fl ies to Jesselton to continue its investigations at 15 centres in Sabah.

April 24 The legislative assembly of the Philippines unanimously approve "Resolution No.7… the President of the Republic to take the necessary steps consistent with international law and procedure for the recovery of a certain portion of the Island of Borneo and adjacent islands which appertain to the Philippines".

April 29 Sultan of Sulu hands over the rule of Sulu (which has never been colonised by Spain or the United States of America) to the Philippines until she was accepted as an independent sovereign country.

May 24 The British government sends a memorandum to the ruler of the Philippines on its claim to a part of Sabah.

The other part was previously under the Brunei sultanate, particularly along the west coast.

June 22 The ruler of the Philippines sends a note to the British government on its claim over Sabah.

June 24 Donald Stephen, President United Kadazan Organisation (UNKO), says the people of Sabah challenge the claim by the Philippines.

June 27 Sarawak Chinese Association (SCA) Party formed.

July The Cobbold Commission sends its report to the government of Malaya and Britain .

July 18 Sultan Omar Ali Saifudin, Sultan Brunei, declares that Brunei will join Malaysia separately from Sarawak and Sabah.

July 20 Parti Pesaka formed.

The ruler of the Philippines sends a note on its Sabah claim to the government of Malaya.

August 1 Negotiations on the Cobbold Report between Malaya led by Tunku Abdul Rahman and his colleague from Britain to announce the formation of the Federation of Malaysia on August 31, 1963 after it is approved by their respective legislatures.

August 30 Inter – Government Committee (IGC) holds a preparatory meeting in Jesselton, Sabah, and sets up its headquarters there.

Sabah political parties submit the Twenty Points claim to Deputy Prime Minister of the Federation of Malaya Tun Abdul Razak and Lord Landsowne in Jesselton.

September 12 The Sabah State Legislative Assembly unanimously approves the formation of the Federation of Malaysia and the establishment of the IGC.

September 26 The Sarawak State Legislative Assembly unanimously approves the formation of the Federation of Malaysia and the establishment of the IGC.

The Sabah Alliance is set up by Pasok Momogun, Sabah United Party, United Kadazan Organization (UNKO) and United Sabah National Organization (USNO).

September Philippines Vice President, Emmanuel Paleaez, declares his country's claims to a part of Sabah at the United Nations, New York. October 16 Sabah Alliance declares the opposition of the people of Sabah on the claim of the Philippines.

December Sabah Alliance wins the election with 131 out of 137 contested constituencies with a manifesto based on the Twenty Points.

December 8 Partai Rakyat Brunei causes a revolt in Brunei, Limbang, Lawas and Miri.

December 9 A M Azahari, Partai Rakyat Brunei chairman, announces the North Kalimantan Revolution Government while in exile in Manila. He is actually a citizen of Lebanon; his father had married the daughter of Hugh Low, the British Governor of Labuan, who had married a Sarawakian woman, Dayang Loyang.

December 20 IGC holds its last meeting in Kuala Lumpur.

It had held 24 meetings in Kuching, Jeselton, Singapore and Kuala Lumpur.

1963 January 5 Curfew from 6pm to 6am is enforced in Limbang. January 8 The Governor declares as illegal the Sarawak Farmers' Association, Kesatuan Rakyat Insaf Sarawak, Chung Hua Alumni Association Sibu, Tentera Nasional Kalimantan Utara, Angkatan Dosu Berantu and Angkatan Rakyat Anak Sabah.

January 28 British Foreign Secretary Lord Home and Philippines Vice President Emmanuel Palaez begins negotiations on claims over Sabah until February 1 with no results.

Diosado Macapagal, the President of the Philippines states for the fi rst time his country's opposition to the formation of Malaysia in his state-of-thenation speech in the Philippines Congress.

February 11 Dr Subandario, Indonesia Foreign Minister, officially objects to the formation of Malaysia.

February 23 IGC submits Reports to the Governments of the Four Parties Concerned – Britain, Malaya, Sarawak and Sabah.

The IGC report is published. March 8 Sarawak State Legislative Assembly unanimously adopts the recommendations in the IGC report.

March 13 Sabah State Legislative Assembly adopts recommendations in the IGC report.

April Sarawak local council elections are held until June.

May 15 Third Rajah Sir Charles Vyner Brooke passes away in England.

May 31 Tunku Abdul Rahman, Prime Minister of Malaya and Sukarno, President of the Republic of Indonesia negotiate in Tokyo for an agreement o n the formation of Malaysia and to stop Indonesia from sending her army into Sarawak and Sabah.

June18 The Sarawak Flag will use the old fl ag with a crown in the centre.

June19 The results of the election are announced – Alliance 78, Independent 67, SUPP 16 and Panas 11. June 20 31 Independent legislators join Alliance, bringing the tally to 119.

July 9 The Malaysia Agreement is reached by Britain, Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak and Sabah.

Brunei withdraws at the last moment.

It is signed by Temenggong Jugah, Dato Bandar Abang Mustapa, Abang Openg, Ling Beng Siew and PEH Pike.

From Sabah are Donald Stephens, Dato Mustapha, Khoo Siak Chiew, G S Sundang, WS Holley, and WKH Jones.

From Singapore are Lee Kuan Yew, and the representatives of Malaya and Britain are Tunku Abdul Rahman and Harold Macmillan respectively.

July 19 British House of Commons approves the Malaysia Bill to enable Sarawak and Sabah to form Malaysia.

July 22 Stephen Kalong Ningkan chosen as the first Chief Minister of Sarawak along with the state's first cabinet.

July 30 Tunku Abdul Rahman, Sukarno and Macapagal meet at the Manila Summit.

August 5 Manila Summit ends resulting in Manila Declaration in which the three countries agree to form a new confederation called Maphilindo (short for Malaysia, Philippines and Indonesia).

There is also a Manila Accord in which the three countries agree to work together in politics, economics, socially and culturally.

Philippines and Indonesia request that the Secretary General of the United Nations get the views of the people of Sarawak and Sabah on the formation of Malaysia.

August 3 Governor Sir Alexander Waddel launches the 1962 uprising memorial for British commandos who were defeated in Limbang.

August 6 Teo Kui Seng, Natural Resources Minister, also the chairman of the Malaysia Day celebration, announces the programme.

August 8 Sabah Legislative Assembly unanimously passes the Merdeka motion to join Malaysia and also approves the Malaysia Agreement.

August 15 Parliament of the Federation of Malaysia approves the Malaysia Agreement.

August 16 United Nation Malaysia Mission (UNMM) arrives and carries out its task to get the opinion of the people of Sarawak and Sabah until September 5, 1963.

Their arrival is also met with anti-Malaysia protestors at the Kuching Airport.

August18 Indonesian soldiers and insurgents invade Sungai Bangkit in Song, resulting in a casualty.

August 19 Abdul Taib Mahmud, Communication and Works Minister, visits the headquarters of the Public Works Department in Kuching.

The merdeka celebration is postponed from August 31 to September 16.

August 26 Yang Di-Pertuan Agong of Malaya approves the Malaysian constitution. August 27 Demonstrations against Malaysia in Sibu in connection with the arrival of the UNMM team.

August 29 Yang Di-Pertuan Agong signs the Malaysia Declaration, fi xed on September 16, 1963.

Anti-Malaysia protest in Miri on the arrival of the UNMM team results in a clash with the police. August 30 UNMM team arrives in Limbang, its last stop.

September 1 UNMM representative, Lawrence Michelmore, meets representatives from Alliance and SUPP at the State Legislative Assembly chambers.

September 4 Sarawak Legislative Assembly approves Malaysia motion with 38 votes for and fi ve against.

Stephen Kalong Ningkan tables the motion which states: "Be it resolved that this Council reaffirms its support for Malaysia, endorses the formal agreement which was signed in London on the 9th July and, while regretting that the Federation of Malaysia could not be brought into being on the 31st August, welcomes the decision to establish it on the 16th September, 1963." September 5 UNMM team leaves Sarawak.

September 11 Chief Minister, Stephen Kalong Ningkan, and three ministers as well as 10 members of the Alliance fl y to Kuala Lumpur to meet the Prime Minister and the Secretary of the Colony of Britain, Duncan Sandys. September 13 UNMM presents its report.

"The Mission is satisfi ed that through its hearings it was able to reach a crosssection of the population in all walks of life and that the expressions of opinion that it heard represent the views of a sizeable majority of the population.

The Mission is convinced that the time devoted to hearings and the number of localities visited was adequate and enabled it to fully carry out its terms of references."

Sir Alexander Waddell announces that Datu Abang Openg is appointed by the Yang Di-Pertuan as the first Yang Di-Pertua of Sarawak beginning from Malaysia Day.

Temenggong Jugah Barieng is appointed to the Federal Cabinet as the Sarawak Affairs Minister.

September 14 Duncan Sandys arrives in Kuching for a brief visit. September 15 Dr M Sockalingam is appointed as the Speaker of the Sarawak Dewan Undangan Negeri.

British colonial Governor, Sir Alexander Waddell, and wife leave Astana, the offi cial Brooke residence and that of British governors since 1870, at exactly 12.30pm.

September 16 Tun Abang Openg is sworn in as the fi rst Yang Di- Pertua Negeri Sarawak. Prime Minister of Malaysia Tunku Abdul Rahman reads the Proclamation of Malaysia in front of the Yang Di-Pertuan Agong, Raja- Raja Melayu and thousands of citizens at Stadium Merdeka to mark the birth of a new country named, the Federation of Malaysia.

He says: "The great day we have long awaited has come at last – the birth of Malaysia.

In a warm spirit of joy and hope ten million people of many races in all the states of Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak and Sabah now join hands in freedom and joy."

Khir Johari reads Proclamation of Malaysia as the representative of the Prime Minister to mark the independence of Sarawak in the presence of Tuan Yang Terutama Tun Abang Openg, Chief Minister Datuk Stephen Kalong Ningkan, the State Cabinet and the people at Padang Sentral (now Padang Merdeka), Kuching, and in all divisions of Sarawak.

(Chronology is translated from the offi cial 45th anniversary souvenir book, 'Perayaan 45 Tahun Sarawak Maju Dalam Malaysia, 1963 – 2008).

Image from file

11 di lawas sarawak - Google Blog Search

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Pesawat Twin Otter Terbabas <b>di</b> Lapangan Terbang <b>Lawas</b>, <b>Sarawak</b>

Posted: 25 Aug 2011 04:44 AM PDT

[unable to retrieve full-text content]Pesawat Twin Otter Terbabas di Lapangan Terbang Lawas, Sarawak. Menurut laporan BorneoPost Online, kejadian ini berlaku sekitar 3.30 petang semalam. Seramai 16 penumpang, seorang juruterbang dan pembantu juruterbang ...

Tiada cadangan bina jalan darat Miri-<b>Lawas</b> tanpa <b>...</b> - my <b>Sarawak</b>

Posted: 13 Sep 2011 08:19 PM PDT

LIMBANG: "Kerajaan belum bercadang untuk membina jalan darat yang menghu-bungkan Miri terus ke Lawas tanpa melalui Negara Brunei," kata Menteri Kerja Raya, Datuk Shaziman Abu Mansor.

Beliau berkata, sebaiknya kerajaan lebih memfokus kepada usaha untuk menaik taraf jalan sepanjang Pan Borneo mengikut ke-utamaan dan keperluan.

"Kita tidak bercadang untuk membina jalan lain yang menghubungkan Miri terus ke Lawas.

"Apa yang menjadi keutamaan dan fokus adalah untuk menaik taraf jalan Pan Borneo dari masa ke masa," katanya ketika ditemui pemberita selepas Majlis Perasmian Tapak Projek Cadangan Membina Jambatan Menyeberangi Sungai Pandaruan di Da-erah Temburong Brunei semalam.

Shaziman menjelaskan lagi jalan Pan Borneo begitu penting dan menjadi laluan utama bagi penduduk di Sarawak dan Sabah.

"Usaha menaik taraf akan sentiasa dijalankan bagi memastikan penduduk di ne-geri ini dan Sabah dapat menikmati kemudahan perhubungan jalan raya dengan lebih baik," katanya lagi.

Sementara itu Ahli Parlimen Limbang, Hasbi Habibollah gembira dengan keprihatinan kerajaan untuk membina jambatan Pandaruan.

"Saya tidak dapat bayangkan bagaimana gembiranya apabila kerajaan dapat mem-bina kemudahan ini.

"Ia menjadi laluan utama bagi penduduk di wilayah kepulauan Borneo dan kawasan berdekatan yang menggunakan jalan ini," katanya lagi.

Hasbi menambah pembinaan jambatan ini akan melancarkan lagi perjalanan darat sekali gus menjana pertumbuhan ekonomi, pelancongan penduduk setempat dalam masa terdekat.

11 di kuching sarawak - Google Blog Search

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Kereta Sewa <b>Kuching</b> | Malaysia - <b>Sarawak</b> - Business Informations <b>...</b>

Posted: 16 Sep 2011 07:22 AM PDT

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Chronology of <b>Sarawak</b> throughout the Brooke Era to Malaysia Day <b>...</b>

Posted: 15 Sep 2011 11:50 PM PDT

Posted on September 16, 2011, Friday

MOMENT IN HISTORY: Snapshots of Alexander Waddell departing Kuching and Sarawak leaders arriving in Kuching from KL.

1835 Beginning of the Sarawak Rebellion (against the Sultan of Brunei) led by Sarawak chief Datu Patinggi Ali.

1839 James Brooke arrives in Kuching on the Royalist carrying a message of thanks and presents from the Governor of Singapore to Rajah Muda Hassim in Sarawak.

He returns later and at the request of the Rajah Muda Hassim, the Sultan of Brunei, suppresses the rebellion.

Sept 21 1841 Brooke made rajah and governor of Sarawak after Rajah Muda Hassim dismisses Makota.

1845 The battle of Marudu Bay sees Brooke enlisting the help of the British Royal Navy in Singapore to defeat Sherif Osman, a famous pirate leader from North Borneo, effectively ending his piracy.

1846 Sultan of Brunei unhappy with the English and Brooke.

His fi rst move against Brooke is to order the killing of Englishmen and everybody in Brunei close to him, which includes Rajah Muda Hassim, his brother Badruddin and other leaders in Brunei.

Brooke attacks Brunei in retaliation. Assisted by the British navy, they capture the city.

The Sultan is allowed to return to his palace after surrendering.

In addition he gives Sarawak completely to Brooke and his heirs forever without payment of any more money.

In memory of Rajah Muda Hassim and Badruddin, he gives two streets in Kuching their names: Jalan Muda Hassim and Badruddin Road. Later, two of his nephews, James and Charles Johnson come to Sarawak to help him.

James is given the title Tuan Besar and later, Rajah Muda.

Charles Johnson is called the Tuan Muda and changes his name to Charles Brooke later when he becomes the second rajah of Sarawak.

1849 The Battle of Beting Maru sees Brooke defeating Iban pirate chief named Linggir.

He is helped by Captain Farquhar, his ships of the Royal Navy and by Malay and Dayak in prahus.

Altogether there are about 75 boats and 3,500 men on Brooke's side.

After a hard fight for several hours in the darkness, many pirate ships are sunk and hundreds of pirates killed or captured.

Brooke builds forts at Lingga and the mouth of the Skrang River on Batang Lupar to prevent more attacks.

1850 The US recognises Sarawak.

1852 Sarawak's territory expands.

1853 Sarawak extended to the Krian River.

1855 Brooke starts the Supreme Council made up of a small group of important officers in Sarawak to help him govern the country.

1857 Kuching sacked by Chinese rebels.

Six hundred Chinese miners from Bau sail down the Sarawak river at night to attack the Astana, the government buildings and the fort. Much of Kuching is razed to the ground except for the Chinese areas.

Brooke retaliates by enlisting the help of loyal Malays.

Charles sails quickly from Lingga with Iban soldiers.

The rebels retreat up river and are chased to Bau and to the Dutch Borneo border where they try to escape to Sambas and Pontianak.

As many as 1,000 Chinese rebels and their families are killed.

1861 After their defeat at sea, pirates move farther inland to continue attacking villages and capturing heads.

The chief leader is an Iban named Libau, better known as Rentap.

From his Bukit Sadok fort, he leads his men to attack villages or the Rajah's forts along the Batang Lupar.

After two unsuccessful counter-attacks, Charles becomes more determined to capture Rentap's fort at Bukit Sadok.

He builds a twelve-pounder cannon in Kuching which takes 500 of his men to pull through the jungle to Bukit Sadok. Once there, 60 of his strongest men lift the cannon on poles and carry it to the top of Bukit Sadok 3,000 feet high.

The cannon fi re penetrates Rentap's sturdy fort made of thick belian wood.

They discover, however, that the pirate leader has run off into the jungle and burn his fort.

Rentap is never to be heard of again.

1861 Sarawak is extended to Kidurong Point.

An offer by King Leopold I. of Belgium to purchase Sarawak is not successful.

1862 The Sarawak regiment.

Is created.

1863 Sarawak Dollar introduced.

1864 Britain recognises Sarawak as an independent principality.

1865 Charles forms the Council Negri which include people in the Supreme Council, other officers of the rajah's government and the most important native chiefs.

1867 Council Negri holds its first meeting in Sibu.

1868 James Brooke is succeeded by his nephew Charles.

Brooke returns to England due to ill health and dies there.

1869 Sarawak begins issuing postage stamps.

1870 Sarawak Gazette begins publication.

1872 The name of the town of 'Sarawak' is changed to Kuching where it reportedly gets its name from a small brook which ran into the Sarawak River near the present Chinese Chamber of Commerce Building at the end of Main Bazaar.

1883 Sarawak extended to Baram River.

1884 Great fi re of Kuching. 1885 Acquisition of the Limbang area, from Brunei.

1888 Sarawak declared a British protectorate.

1890 Limbang added to Sarawak.

1891 Opening of the Sarawak Museum.

The border between Sarawak and Dutch Borneo is decided at a meeting between Great Britain and the Netherlands (Holland) whereupon it is decided that the border would follow as closely as possible the line of the highest mountains between Sarawak and Dutch Borneo.

1901 Sarawak's population is 320,000 1903. Oil discovered in Sarawak.

1905 Acquisition of the Lawas Region, from Brunei.

Sarawak spans 47,000 square miles.

1912 Brooke Dry Dock opened. 1915 First railway line in Sarawak opened.

1915 Committee of Administration, seated in Kuching, established.

A 10-mile railway going south from Kuching fi rst used.

1917 Charles Vyner Brooke succeeds his father Charles as Rajah.

1924 Sarawak Penal Code introduced.

1925 Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China builds its first offi ce in Kuching to take care of the payment for Sarawak;s increasing business with other countries. 1931 Penghulu Asun leads a small rebellion among the Ibans against the government in the headwaters of the Kanowit, Entabai and Julau Rivers.

Vyner Brooke sends a police expedition up the Kanowit River and captures Asun and most of the other leaders.

Fort Brooke is built at Nanga Meluan on the Kanowit River.

Asun dies of old age in 1958. 1938 Kuching airport opened.

1941 Written constitution granted.

1941 Sarawak has a population of 490,000.

Dec 161941 Japanese occupy Miri.

Dec 19 1941 Japanese bomb Kuching.

Dec 24 1941 Japanese attack and capture Kuching.

1942-1945 Japanese occupation.

August 14 1945 Japanese surrender.

Sept 11 1945 Australian forces liberate Sarawak.

1945-1946 Sarawak is put under Australia's military administration.

May 1946 Council Negri meets to talk about cession to British government.

They agree that Sarawak should become a colony by a vote of 19 to 16.

July 1 1946 Government passes a law that accepts Sarawak as a British Crown Colony.

1946 Sarawak becomes British crown colony.

1949 Governor Duncan Stewart is assassinated.

1957 Sarawak gets a new constitution which changes the size and powers of the Council Negri.

Council Negri is increased to 45 members.

1959 First general election held in Sarawak.

1961 May 27 Tunku Abdul Rahman, Prime Minister of Persekutuan Tanah Melayu, at a Foreign Correspondents' Association of Southeast Asia press conference in Singapore, says the Federation of Malaya should have a close understanding with Britain and the people of Sarawak, Brunei and Sabah.

June 20 Sir Harold Macmillan, British Prime Minister, in a reply to a question in Parliament, says he is interested in the suggestion made by Tunku.

June 26 British offi cers from Singapore, Sarawak, Brunei and Sabah, consisting of governors, hold a meeting in Singapore until June 27.

July 1 Tunku Abdul Rahman accompanies the Yang Di- Pertuan Agong of Malaya to offi cially visit Brunei and Sarawak. July 9 Azahari (Partai Rakyat Brunei), Ong Kee Hui (Sarawak United People's Party) and Donald Stephens (Sabah) establish the United Front and disagrees with the proposal by Tunku Abdul Rahman and Britain.

July 12 Tunku Abdul Rahman exposes communist threats in South East Asia as an important factor in his proposal.

July 22 Lee Kuan Yew, Singapore chief minister, proposes that representatives from Sarawak, Brunei and Sabah present their views at the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association (CPA) on the Malaysia proposal.

July 28 Establishment of the Malaysia Solidarity Consultative Committee (MSCC) in Singapore during the CPA Conference.

August 12 First visit of leaders from Sarawak and Sabah – Datu Bandar Abang Mustapa, Temenggong Jugah, Donald Stephens and Dato Mustapha – to Malaya to see the progress for themselves.

Many such visits are organised for leaders in Sarawak and Sabah up till the formation of Malaysia.

August 24 MSCC holds its fi rst meeting in Jesselton (now Kota Kinabalu) in North Borneo (Sabah).

Brunei did not attend.

October 16 A motion for the formation of Malaysia is tabled in Parliament by Tunku Abdul Rahman and is approved.

November 23 Malaya negotiates with Britain to amend the Defence Agreement to expand British assistance when Malaysia is formed and to maintain their army camps.

Malaya and Britain negotiate and agree on the setting up of an investigative commission on the formation of Malaysia.

December Parti Barisan Anak Jati Sarawak (Barjasa) is registered.

Political parties formed earlier are the Sarawak United People's Party (SUPP) on 12 June 1959, Parti Negara Sarawak (Panas) on 9 April 1960 and Sarawak National Party (SNAP) on 10 April 1961.

These older parties are formed for local council and district elections that started in 1959.

December 18 MSCC holds its second meeting in Kuching.

Brunei attends only as observer.

December 20 The stand of Sarawak and Sabah shifts from opposition to bargaining on issues such as representation in parliament, freedom of religion, national language, civil service, immigration and economic development as stated in a press statement at the end of the MSCC meeting.

December 30 During a conference in Jakarta, Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI), the third largest communist party in the world, condemns the formation of Malaysia as a British neo-colonist ploy.

1962 January 4 British colonial government in Sarawak publishes a white paper on Sarawak's consent for Malaysia and the establishment of an investigative commission proposed by the governments of Malaya and Britain on November 23, 1961.

The White Paper is translated into local dialects and widely distributed in Sarawak.

January 8 MSCC holds its third meeting on constitution and politics in Kuala Lumpur.

A decision is reached to produce all the proceedings for public consumption just as the British colonial government had done in Sarawak. January 31 British colonial government in Sabah produces a white paper, similar to the one published in Sarawak.

It is also translated into local languages and distributed widely.

February 1 MSCC holds its fourth and last meeting in Singapore.

February 3 All MSCC delegates sign a memorandum of proposals and recommendations which is then published in Sarawak and Sabah.

The Cobbold Commission is set up to seek the views of the people of Sarawak and Sabah on the formation of Malaysia.

Members of the commission are Lord Cobbold (chairman), Sir Anthony Abell and Sir David Watheraton (British representatives) Dato Wong Pow and Ghazali Shafie (representatives of Malaya).

February 19 The Cobbold Commission arrives in Kuching to begin public hearings at 35 centres.

March 6 Deputy Prime Minister of Malaya, Tun Abdul Razak, said that at that time only Britain and the Philippines were involved in the territorial claims over Sabah.

April 17 The Cobbold Commission completes its task in Sarawak and fl ies to Jesselton to continue its investigations at 15 centres in Sabah.

April 24 The legislative assembly of the Philippines unanimously approve "Resolution No.7… the President of the Republic to take the necessary steps consistent with international law and procedure for the recovery of a certain portion of the Island of Borneo and adjacent islands which appertain to the Philippines".

April 29 Sultan of Sulu hands over the rule of Sulu (which has never been colonised by Spain or the United States of America) to the Philippines until she was accepted as an independent sovereign country.

May 24 The British government sends a memorandum to the ruler of the Philippines on its claim to a part of Sabah.

The other part was previously under the Brunei sultanate, particularly along the west coast.

June 22 The ruler of the Philippines sends a note to the British government on its claim over Sabah.

June 24 Donald Stephen, President United Kadazan Organisation (UNKO), says the people of Sabah challenge the claim by the Philippines.

June 27 Sarawak Chinese Association (SCA) Party formed.

July The Cobbold Commission sends its report to the government of Malaya and Britain .

July 18 Sultan Omar Ali Saifudin, Sultan Brunei, declares that Brunei will join Malaysia separately from Sarawak and Sabah.

July 20 Parti Pesaka formed.

The ruler of the Philippines sends a note on its Sabah claim to the government of Malaya.

August 1 Negotiations on the Cobbold Report between Malaya led by Tunku Abdul Rahman and his colleague from Britain to announce the formation of the Federation of Malaysia on August 31, 1963 after it is approved by their respective legislatures.

August 30 Inter – Government Committee (IGC) holds a preparatory meeting in Jesselton, Sabah, and sets up its headquarters there.

Sabah political parties submit the Twenty Points claim to Deputy Prime Minister of the Federation of Malaya Tun Abdul Razak and Lord Landsowne in Jesselton.

September 12 The Sabah State Legislative Assembly unanimously approves the formation of the Federation of Malaysia and the establishment of the IGC.

September 26 The Sarawak State Legislative Assembly unanimously approves the formation of the Federation of Malaysia and the establishment of the IGC.

The Sabah Alliance is set up by Pasok Momogun, Sabah United Party, United Kadazan Organization (UNKO) and United Sabah National Organization (USNO).

September Philippines Vice President, Emmanuel Paleaez, declares his country's claims to a part of Sabah at the United Nations, New York. October 16 Sabah Alliance declares the opposition of the people of Sabah on the claim of the Philippines.

December Sabah Alliance wins the election with 131 out of 137 contested constituencies with a manifesto based on the Twenty Points.

December 8 Partai Rakyat Brunei causes a revolt in Brunei, Limbang, Lawas and Miri.

December 9 A M Azahari, Partai Rakyat Brunei chairman, announces the North Kalimantan Revolution Government while in exile in Manila. He is actually a citizen of Lebanon; his father had married the daughter of Hugh Low, the British Governor of Labuan, who had married a Sarawakian woman, Dayang Loyang.

December 20 IGC holds its last meeting in Kuala Lumpur.

It had held 24 meetings in Kuching, Jeselton, Singapore and Kuala Lumpur.

1963 January 5 Curfew from 6pm to 6am is enforced in Limbang. January 8 The Governor declares as illegal the Sarawak Farmers' Association, Kesatuan Rakyat Insaf Sarawak, Chung Hua Alumni Association Sibu, Tentera Nasional Kalimantan Utara, Angkatan Dosu Berantu and Angkatan Rakyat Anak Sabah.

January 28 British Foreign Secretary Lord Home and Philippines Vice President Emmanuel Palaez begins negotiations on claims over Sabah until February 1 with no results.

Diosado Macapagal, the President of the Philippines states for the fi rst time his country's opposition to the formation of Malaysia in his state-of-thenation speech in the Philippines Congress.

February 11 Dr Subandario, Indonesia Foreign Minister, officially objects to the formation of Malaysia.

February 23 IGC submits Reports to the Governments of the Four Parties Concerned – Britain, Malaya, Sarawak and Sabah.

The IGC report is published. March 8 Sarawak State Legislative Assembly unanimously adopts the recommendations in the IGC report.

March 13 Sabah State Legislative Assembly adopts recommendations in the IGC report.

April Sarawak local council elections are held until June.

May 15 Third Rajah Sir Charles Vyner Brooke passes away in England.

May 31 Tunku Abdul Rahman, Prime Minister of Malaya and Sukarno, President of the Republic of Indonesia negotiate in Tokyo for an agreement o n the formation of Malaysia and to stop Indonesia from sending her army into Sarawak and Sabah.

June18 The Sarawak Flag will use the old fl ag with a crown in the centre.

June19 The results of the election are announced – Alliance 78, Independent 67, SUPP 16 and Panas 11. June 20 31 Independent legislators join Alliance, bringing the tally to 119.

July 9 The Malaysia Agreement is reached by Britain, Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak and Sabah.

Brunei withdraws at the last moment.

It is signed by Temenggong Jugah, Dato Bandar Abang Mustapa, Abang Openg, Ling Beng Siew and PEH Pike.

From Sabah are Donald Stephens, Dato Mustapha, Khoo Siak Chiew, G S Sundang, WS Holley, and WKH Jones.

From Singapore are Lee Kuan Yew, and the representatives of Malaya and Britain are Tunku Abdul Rahman and Harold Macmillan respectively.

July 19 British House of Commons approves the Malaysia Bill to enable Sarawak and Sabah to form Malaysia.

July 22 Stephen Kalong Ningkan chosen as the first Chief Minister of Sarawak along with the state's first cabinet.

July 30 Tunku Abdul Rahman, Sukarno and Macapagal meet at the Manila Summit.

August 5 Manila Summit ends resulting in Manila Declaration in which the three countries agree to form a new confederation called Maphilindo (short for Malaysia, Philippines and Indonesia).

There is also a Manila Accord in which the three countries agree to work together in politics, economics, socially and culturally.

Philippines and Indonesia request that the Secretary General of the United Nations get the views of the people of Sarawak and Sabah on the formation of Malaysia.

August 3 Governor Sir Alexander Waddel launches the 1962 uprising memorial for British commandos who were defeated in Limbang.

August 6 Teo Kui Seng, Natural Resources Minister, also the chairman of the Malaysia Day celebration, announces the programme.

August 8 Sabah Legislative Assembly unanimously passes the Merdeka motion to join Malaysia and also approves the Malaysia Agreement.

August 15 Parliament of the Federation of Malaysia approves the Malaysia Agreement.

August 16 United Nation Malaysia Mission (UNMM) arrives and carries out its task to get the opinion of the people of Sarawak and Sabah until September 5, 1963.

Their arrival is also met with anti-Malaysia protestors at the Kuching Airport.

August18 Indonesian soldiers and insurgents invade Sungai Bangkit in Song, resulting in a casualty.

August 19 Abdul Taib Mahmud, Communication and Works Minister, visits the headquarters of the Public Works Department in Kuching.

The merdeka celebration is postponed from August 31 to September 16.

August 26 Yang Di-Pertuan Agong of Malaya approves the Malaysian constitution. August 27 Demonstrations against Malaysia in Sibu in connection with the arrival of the UNMM team.

August 29 Yang Di-Pertuan Agong signs the Malaysia Declaration, fi xed on September 16, 1963.

Anti-Malaysia protest in Miri on the arrival of the UNMM team results in a clash with the police. August 30 UNMM team arrives in Limbang, its last stop.

September 1 UNMM representative, Lawrence Michelmore, meets representatives from Alliance and SUPP at the State Legislative Assembly chambers.

September 4 Sarawak Legislative Assembly approves Malaysia motion with 38 votes for and fi ve against.

Stephen Kalong Ningkan tables the motion which states: "Be it resolved that this Council reaffirms its support for Malaysia, endorses the formal agreement which was signed in London on the 9th July and, while regretting that the Federation of Malaysia could not be brought into being on the 31st August, welcomes the decision to establish it on the 16th September, 1963." September 5 UNMM team leaves Sarawak.

September 11 Chief Minister, Stephen Kalong Ningkan, and three ministers as well as 10 members of the Alliance fl y to Kuala Lumpur to meet the Prime Minister and the Secretary of the Colony of Britain, Duncan Sandys. September 13 UNMM presents its report.

"The Mission is satisfi ed that through its hearings it was able to reach a crosssection of the population in all walks of life and that the expressions of opinion that it heard represent the views of a sizeable majority of the population.

The Mission is convinced that the time devoted to hearings and the number of localities visited was adequate and enabled it to fully carry out its terms of references."

Sir Alexander Waddell announces that Datu Abang Openg is appointed by the Yang Di-Pertuan as the first Yang Di-Pertua of Sarawak beginning from Malaysia Day.

Temenggong Jugah Barieng is appointed to the Federal Cabinet as the Sarawak Affairs Minister.

September 14 Duncan Sandys arrives in Kuching for a brief visit. September 15 Dr M Sockalingam is appointed as the Speaker of the Sarawak Dewan Undangan Negeri.

British colonial Governor, Sir Alexander Waddell, and wife leave Astana, the offi cial Brooke residence and that of British governors since 1870, at exactly 12.30pm.

September 16 Tun Abang Openg is sworn in as the fi rst Yang Di- Pertua Negeri Sarawak. Prime Minister of Malaysia Tunku Abdul Rahman reads the Proclamation of Malaysia in front of the Yang Di-Pertuan Agong, Raja- Raja Melayu and thousands of citizens at Stadium Merdeka to mark the birth of a new country named, the Federation of Malaysia.

He says: "The great day we have long awaited has come at last – the birth of Malaysia.

In a warm spirit of joy and hope ten million people of many races in all the states of Malaya, Singapore, Sarawak and Sabah now join hands in freedom and joy."

Khir Johari reads Proclamation of Malaysia as the representative of the Prime Minister to mark the independence of Sarawak in the presence of Tuan Yang Terutama Tun Abang Openg, Chief Minister Datuk Stephen Kalong Ningkan, the State Cabinet and the people at Padang Sentral (now Padang Merdeka), Kuching, and in all divisions of Sarawak.

(Chronology is translated from the offi cial 45th anniversary souvenir book, 'Perayaan 45 Tahun Sarawak Maju Dalam Malaysia, 1963 – 2008).

Image from file

Alliance Wake » <b>SARAWAK</b> CROWDS PACK THE WATERFRONT <b>...</b>

Posted: 16 Sep 2011 11:08 AM PDT

This 31st Wakeboard World Cup Stop has already attracted enormous crowds to the Sarawak River site in the centre of Kuching City in Borneo – even though the event does not start till tomorrow! As part of the historic Sarawak Regatta which dates back to 1872, over 100,000 spectators are expected to enjoy the Wakeboard World Cup Stop this Saturday and Sunday in these magnificent tropical surroundings.
Supported by the Sarawak State Government represented by the Ministry of Tourism and Heritage, the organisers are the International Waterski and Wakeboard Federation (IWWF) and Waterski & Wakeboard World Cup Sdn.Bhd.
Most of the athletes from twenty countries are already on site and will take part in the coinciding Malaysia Day Celebrations. Riders Dan Nott GBR  and Nikita Martyanov RUS took advantage of the many local tourist attractions and headed for the nearby unique and exclusively Asian Orangutan Reserve with their cameras and were not disappointed. First to inspect the very impressive Kuching competition facilities both on and off the water were World Champion Harley Clifford AUS, US Junior Masters Champion Daniel Powers, past World Champion and World Silver Medalist 2011 Andrew Adkison USA, and the young Rookie of the Year sensation Steel Lafferty USA. Also arriving today are World Champion Raimi Merritt USA and the two Irish Junior World Medalists, David O'Caoimh and Sian Hurst who will experience World Cup excitement for the first time. The overall quality of the World Cup Riders is as high as ever and with some new faces on the dock, it will be fascinating to see who takes the Kuching World Cup titles on Sunday evening.
RTM will televise this Wakeboard World Cup Stop, Streamyx WiFi will provide the signal for the Webcast producers Horizon Solutions, and ProActive will produce the TV Edited Programme for global distribution in the coming week. The combination of the LED Giant Screen on site and Plasma Monitors will make the action available to all, both in Kuching and around the world.
The Webcast Link is :

http://247.tv/waterski/freestream/2011-sarawak-wakeboard-world-cup
The World Cup programme for this weekend is :
FRIDAY
07.30 – 11.30 hrs
Wakeboard Practice & Semi Finals

SATURDAY
08.00 – 11.30hrs
Wakeboard – Sarawak Youths / Men Quarter Finals / Women LCQ
15.30 – 16.30hrs
Wakeboard – Men LCQ
17.00 – 17.45hrs
Stars of Florida Show

SUNDAY
09.00 – 10.00hrs
Wakeboard – Men Semi-Finals
10.00 – 11.00hrs
Wakeboard – Women Finals
11.00 – 11.45hrs
Stars of Florida Show
12.00 – 13.00
Wakeboard – Men Finals
15.00 – 15.45hrs
Stars of Florida Show
16.00 – 17.00hrs
Medals Presentation on site 

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RUMAH PANJANG LEO MOGGIE <b>KANOWIT SARAWAK</b> <b>...</b>

Posted: 26 Jul 2011 10:24 PM PDT

Number of view593

KANOWIT: Rumah panjang pengerusi Tenaga Nasional Bhd Tan Sri Leo Moggie di Bejait, kira-kira 45 minit perjalanan darat dari sini, musnah dalam satu kebakaran petang semalam.

Anak saudaranya Nelson Jaun ketika dihubungi berkata seluruh rumah panjang yang mempunyai kediaman 29 pintu itu dijilat api kira-kira 10 minit selepas kebakaran bermula pada kira-kira pukul 6 petang.

Beliau berkata api merebak dengan pantas ekoran musim kemarau yang sedang melanda ketika ini, memusnahkan rumah panjang itu yang boleh diangap paling moden di daerah sini.

Ketua pegawai operasi bomba Douglas Graji ketika dihubungi di pejabat Jabatan Bomba dan Penyelamat Kanowit di sini berkata pihaknya menerima panggilan mengenai kejadian itu pada kira-kira pukul 6.28 petang.

"Satu pasukan 11 anggota yang diketuai pegawai bomba Mutton anak Gelunggang sampai di rumah panjang yang berusia kira-kira 10 tahun itu pada kira-kira pukul 7.17 petang, namun ia sudah tidak dapat diselamatkan lagi," katanya dan menambah api dapat dipadamkan kira-kira sejam kemudian.

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Saga of communist insurgency in <b>Sarawak</b> | BorneoPost Online <b>...</b>

Posted: 16 Sep 2011 12:16 AM PDT

by Francis Chan & Phyllis Wong. Posted on September 16, 2011, Friday

IN REMEMBRANCE: Neo (left) and a friend looking at pictures of fallen comrades on a memorial wall.

AT 61, Neo Kiaw Hong looks like a retired teacher or an 'everyday' housewife.

It is, thus, hard to imagine this slim, almost frail, woman once roamed the deepest jungles of Sarawak for 22 years a communist guerilla, only laying down her arms with the last remnants of a 52-strong guerilla group as late as November 3, 1990.

In the foreword of her memoirs, Neo, from Sibu, wrote: "For 22 years, we left footprints in the virgin forests and reforested areas, climbed through mountains, stepped on swampy lands and travelled through the rivers of Sarawak, Rejang, Oya, Mukah, Tatau, Kemena, Baram, Limbang to the borders of Brunei and Indonesia." (translated from Mandarin).

Indoctrinated with communist ideology by her teachers and peers, Neo joined the revolutionary struggle and entered the jungle at 19 in 1968 for what she and her comrades believed to be a fight for social justice.

They left their homes in the prime of their youth, fired by a fervour 'to rock Sarawak to gain independence', risking their lives and undergoing extreme hardships in the often unforgiving wilderness of the state.

It was a fire that finally went out after the focal point of their inspiration died as early as 1972 when China established bilateral relationships with Malaysia.

Since early 1981, Deng Xiao Peng had encouraged the communists in Malaysia to seek an avenue for a peace accord which was eventually signed in Haadyai, Thailand, on December 2, 1989.

That accord — and perhaps the realisation that time was passing them by as they soldiered on with an increasingly irrelevant struggle — persuaded Neo and her comrades to denounce their futile insurgency.

World realities

But life as a guerrilla was not bereft of the realities of the normal world and the inevitable when young men and women lived and fought together.

In between almost constant movement in the jungle and occasional skirmishes with the security forces, some of them fell in love and got married.

Neo, the midwife of her group, said she delivered 10 babies in the jungle.

She met her husband, Yii Sie Tung, from Kanowit in the jungle and they got married in 1979, stealing out of the jungle for a proper ceremony and a wedding photo shot.

After the 1990 surrender, the couple settled down to normal life in Sibu after a brief period of adjustment and they have a daughter now in higher secondary school.

Yii, now working with a trading company after holding several other jobs, was calm and composed when we interviewed him and his wife in Sibu recently.

Looking back 20 years after laying down their arms, the couple believe they fought for the people of Sarawak.

"Our struggle together with many others had its significance," they claimed.

THEN AND NOW: Neo and husband, Yii as young, idealist insurgents (left) and today, very much the everyday couple with a daughter in higher secondary school.

Heavy toll

The communist insurgency in the state exacted a heavy toll on their members. With an almost resigned look and a tinge of sadness, Yii said they had documented 763 of their comrades who died in the struggle.

However, not all of them died in action – the jungle can be an unforgiving host. Sicknesses and accidents contributed to many of their casualties.

Neo recalled a comrade who died falling down a steep hill and smashing his head against a stone while carrying a wild boar he had shot.

That being said. The jungle can also be a generous host, providing them with game, fish, fruits and vegetables.

Neo said they sometimes feasted like kings on deer and wild boar they shot, and during fruit season, they often collected wild durians by the hundreds – more than they could eat.

There were times too when food was scarce as they had to be constantly on the move. Communist groups have existed in Sarawak since 1941.

Hsueh Hsih (communist indoctrination) groups were fi rst formed in Kuching in 1949-50, following the communists' seizure of power in China. Communism in Sarawak had its origin in the Chinese schools in the 1950s.

They were especially active in Kuching Chung Hua Schools.

The two key leaders who emerged from the Chung Hua Middle School and were later pivotal in setting up the Clandestine Communist Organisation (CCO) in Sarawak were Weng Min Chyuan and Bong Kee Chok.

47-day strike

In March 30, 1954, students of Kuching Chung Hua Middle School held a 47-day strike to protest against the school authority's teaching methods and its measures in expelling students.

"The students eventually won and this developed into a revolutionary organisation and group spreading to other towns.

"Because of this, the group's influence grew bigger, not only in the schools as it also spread to the business community and farmers, who were parents of the students." recalled Yii who was 19 when he joined the revolutionary group in 1968.

Another former CCO member Liew Min Jaw, from Bau, has settled in Miri and returned to what he was doing before taking up arms in the jungle – farming.

When met in Miri recently, Liew was initially rather reserved in his replies to our questions but loosened up after a while.

He said he entered the jungle in May 1963 when he was 24 years old, adding that they were forced by circumstances and infl uences of their teachers into taking up arms.

"We were also very much influenced by our school teachers who moved us towards the ideals of socialism and communism where everyone was supposed to be equal," he added.

Liew returned to society much earlier than Yii and Neo — a few months before the signing of the Sri Aman Treaty between the Sarawak government and Bong Kee Chok in 1973.

Liew lived in Kuching for many years, working as a barber before going back to farming with his family in Miri.

Hiung Kiew Ming, 64, is another former CCO member who surrendered in 1973.

He was only 15 when he joined the communist movement and walked into the jungle in 1962.

Hsiung, from Sibu, has also settled down in Miri. He worked in several companies after he got out, including a few years with a newspaper in Miri.

Communist infl itration

Like Liew, he too was influenced by his teachers and peers into joining the communist movement at an age when most of his friends were still in school.

Hsiung's case is a good example of how the communists influenced Chinese school students in the 1950's and early 60's, making use of these schools as the main recruitment base for new cadres.

According to a government White Paper — The Communist Threat to Sarawak — the CCO had also infiltrated the trade unions and Chinese media and covertly taken over Sarawak United People's Party (SUPP), Sarawak's earliest political party.

Based on excerpts from the White Paper, the SUPP was "controlled" by the CCO since just after its formation in 1959 as a base to its subversive campaign.

It was assessed that the CCO had penetrated nearly all levels of the SUPP and exercised complete control at the branch level and below where the communist influence had been reflected from time to time in SUPP's political rallies, cultural activities, recruiting drives, etc.

However, in a newspaper interview then, Ong Kee Hui, one of the founding leaders of SUPP, said his party was not a communist organisation and that there was no place in it for any CCO members.

"We are a legitimate political party and we have no place for people who choose to conduct activities outside the law.

If the Party had any evidence of any member involved in such activities, it would have no hesitation in taking firm and proper action."

Nevertheless, Liew confirmed this: "I joined SUPP in 1960, and many of the members were also like me (SUPP-CCO)."

Image from file

Large scale arrests

Following the Brunei Rebellion in 1962 when AM Azahari launched his attempt to overthrow the Brunei Sultanate, the British carried out large scale arrests of anti-colonisation and anti-Malaysia elements.

According to Liew, the 'migration' of the mostly Chinese youths to the Indonesian border was prompted by arrest orders issued by the British to round up suspected communists.

About 700-800 CCO members and supporters slipped across the Sarawak border into Indonesia where they received intensive training in guerilla warfare.

It was this group that formed the core of the communist guerrilla units — Pasukan Rakyat Kalimantan Utara (PARAKU) and Pasukan Gerilya Rakyat Sarawak (PGRS).

Liew recalled joining a group of 30 to Serikin on the border with Indonesia.

"The intensive training included swimming, tree climbing, blind-folded assembly, disassembly of guns and TNT explosive handling."

In the midst of all this, Tunku Abdul Rahman launched his federation plan to incorporate Singapore, Brunei, Sarawak and Sabah into a single political entity called Malaysia.

"The fi rst operation of the trained members was to lead about 60 guerillas as a show of force to the Cobbold Commission visiting Sibu.

But the plan failed when the guerillas lost their way in the jungle and ran out of food too."

Another former cadre Lee Nguk Sang, 70, said:

"The timing could not be better for the CCO as Sukarno vowed he would 'crush' the federation of Malaysia even before it was formed.

"The Indonesian leader became an instant ally of the CCO, providing the organisation with supplies and training facilities in Kalimantan."

Lee, unlike Liew, Yiu, Neo and Hiung, did not "walk" into the jungle.

He was more a CCO sympathiser and a vital contact in the town for them.

The tide turned however, things began to sour for the CCO when Suharto took power in Indonesia in 1965.

Suharto did not share his predecessor's vision, and launched a mopping up operation against the communists and their supporters in Indonesia.

It was just a matter of time before the CCO would be targetted.

Suharto's acceptance of the federation of Malaysia meant the safe haven for the CCO in Kalimantan had disappeared overnight.

Liew revealed Suharto actually sent a letter to the CCO with an ultimatum that they laid down arms and returned to Malaysia or disarmed and stayed on in Indonesia or the Indonesian army would attack and eliminate the CCO.

On the Sarawak side, the government had instituted the lessons learnt from the Emergency in the peninsula.

'New Villages' were created along the Kuching- Serian road to ensure the Chinese and native farmers were out of the CCO's reach.

Villagers were kept under close supervision and security at night.

By 1970, Sarawak had a new coalition government made up of Parti Bumiputera and SUPP with Rahman Yakub as the chief minister. The 'moderates' in SUPP were in full control.

Stephen Yong was appointed deputy chief minister.

The CCO found it harder and harder to operate.

Sri Aman peace deal The CCO also officially established the North Kalimantan Communist Party (NKCP) in 1970 with the manifesto written by Bong (Kee Chok).

In 1973, Bong wrote a letter to Rahman Yakub, then Sarawak's chief minister, calling for talks.

A secret meeting was held in Simanggang, leading to the signing of a memorandum between the Sarawak government and PARAKU on Oct 21, 1973.

To commemorate this event Simanggang was renamed Sri Aman.

The 'Sri Aman' operation on Oct 21, 1973 had severely weakened the people's armed revolutionary power in Sarawak.

It was the futility of their struggle that prompted Liew and Hsiung and some of his comrades to follow Bong's initiative in laying down arms to rejoin society.

After 1973, the remaining 121 CCO members, led by Hung Chu Ting and Wong Lian Kui, continued to fi ght.

Yii and his wife Neo were among them.

From 1974 onwards, the war of attrition continued mostly in the Rejang Delta. There were killings on both sides and many innocent civilians lost their lives.

"The catalyst for the ending of the armed struggle was the peace agreement signed between the MCP and the Malaysian government in 1989.

Weng Min Chyuan, from China, issued instructions that the CCO should also open negotiations with the Sarawak government," recalled Yii who was one of the negotiators.

A series of negotiations took place in Bintulu in July 1990. On October 17, 1990, a formal peace agreement ending the communist insurrection in Sarawak was signed at Wisma Bapa Malaysia, Kuching, following which, the last group of 52 communist guerillas, led by Ang Cho Teng, surrendered.

Ex-CCO members have formed friendship associations to keep in touch with one another, and various memoirs of several ex-CCO guerillas have been published in Chinese.

EARLY DAYS: The founder of the CCO, Bong Kee Chok (back second left) in a picture with SUPP Kuching division members and a group from the Padawan Bidayuh community at their longhouse in 1961.

PROPAGANDA: The banner pictured above typifi es the anti-Malaysia sentiment during the 60s.

A rock and a hard place | BorneoPost Online | Borneo , Malaysia <b>...</b>

Posted: 16 Sep 2011 01:06 AM PDT

Posted on September 16, 2011, Friday

AMICABLE TERMS: The signing ceremony of the Memorandum of Understanding between then Chief Minister, Abdul Rahman and Bong, director and political commissar of PARAKU at Rumah Sri Aman, Simanggang.

The circumstances that led to Op Sri Aman and the fi rst of a series of peace treaties between the communist insurgents and the Sarawak govt

THROUGH a personal letter addressed to then chief minister Tun Abdul Rahman Yakub, dated Oct 10 1973, director and political commissar of the North Kalimantan Communist Party (PARAKU) Bong Kee Chok stated that he and his colleagues would agree to lay down arms "for the realisation of peace in the State and cessation of war to carry out reconstruction and development".

A compilation of notes and documentations by the late Datuk Lawrence Lim.

The realisation had been a long time coming.

Image from file

Internal struggles within the Party Central Committee in what was then, First Division, along with growing disheartened revolutionists resulted in many of them surrendering, including the leader of 330 combat unit, Sim Kian Peng and Bong's own secretary, Bong Sai Yung and her husband Fam Kuok Kion on Sept 30 1973.

With their surrender, vital intelligence on his movements and his whereabouts had also been given up, effectively numbering the days for him and his men.

A massive encirclement cutting off all communication and supply routes had been cut off to Bong's unit.

The former director and political commissar of the PARAKU realised he was cornered. After some deliberation with his subordinates, there was only one thing they could do: hold peace talks. But first, they had to contact the leaders of the other factions.

Bong Kee Kwan and Tiong Hoe Hung were sent out with two letters each. O n e for the chief minister, and the other to the leaders of other factions – Overall Military Commander of the First Division Bureau Military Unit Bong Kee Hiu and Hung Chu Ting, Deputy Director of PARAKU and Overall leader of the Second Bureau operating in RASCOM.

Their intention was to inform them of their resolution for peace talks, and to ultimately surrender.

Before they could reach the other factions, however, both emissaries were captured by the police at Engkilili on their bus routes to their separate destinations.

They were subsequently taken to Kuching for a meeting with the chief minister and met him at his residence on Oct 13, 1973.

He expressed his willingness to meet Bong and agreed to the peace talk.

Almost a week later, Bong emerged from the jungle accompanied by his two emissaries Bong Kee Kwan, Tiong and his bodyguard Chai Ai Yew on Oct 19 and proceeded straight to the Residency in Simanggang where he would talk with Abdul Rahman.

Their first meeting was deliberately casual, allowing both sides to gauge the others' intentions and character.

On Oct 20, formal talks were held with the meeting being concluded on Oct 21 with the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding.

At the MoU ceremony held at Simanggang (later renamed Sri Aman to commemorate the event),Bong proposed that PARAKU units under his command would lay down their arms and rejoin society under the following considerations:

1. That Malaysian citizenship status of PARAKU members be guaranteed and PARAKU members who were Indonesian nationals be granted Malaysian citizenship upon application.

Abdul Rahman explained that there were three categories of persons involved in the issue of citizenship.

The first category referred to those who were Malaysian citizens.

Secondly, those who were Indonesian nationals wanting to be Malaysian citizens and lastly, foreigners, if any who wanted to be Malaysian citizens.

2. That members of PARAKU would be given opportunity to participate in the management of the Sarawak coalition government.

In his response, Abdul Rahman replied that it would be entirely up to the component parties' concerned to decide on the nomination of the candidates.

The candidates, he added, would not be chosen by the government.

Thus for ex-communists to be nominated as candidates depended entirely on the respective component parties.

3. That those who were detained under Preservation of Public Security Regulations (PPSR) should be released and be allowed to return to society as a result of the realisation of peace.

Abdul Rahman argued that the PPSR gave power to the authority to detain any person whose activities in Sarawak threatened the security of the country.

He added that the government had from time to time reviewed the detainees' cases and many of them had, in fact, already been released.

Abdul Rahman said those who were still retained would certainly be considered for release, provided that the government was satisfied that they were no longer a threat to national security.

4.That the controlled areas would be abolished on restoration of peace.

To this request, Abdul Rahman assured that upon the restoration of complete peace in the state, favourable consideration would be given to the abolishment on controlled areas.

Under the MoU, 321 PARAKU members from the First and Second Divisions withdrew in 69 batches. However, 16 of these PARAKU members decided to return to the jungle and rejoin their comrades.

Therefore, the actual number of those who rejoined society after the Sri Aman peace talk was 302. Under the peace deal, a total of 2245 firearms, 4390 assorted ammunition and 28 mines/grenades/bombs were destroyed at Bukit Siol in Kuching.

Following the announcement of the peace treaty, the government organised and carried out a series of successful peace rallies throughout Sarawak.

The aims of the peace rallies were twofold. Firstly, it was to provide opportunity for the government to explain the Sri Aman Peace Treaty to the masses with the view to recondition their thinking towards new political development.

Secondly, it was desirable to take the full advantage of the favourable political situation to mobilise the general public towards ensuring that the remaining Paraku members would withdraw completely from the jungle.

These peace rallies were met with excellent public response and enthusiasm.

When Op Sri Aman I was terminated on June 12 1974, it was surmised that the 52 remaining PARAKU members in the First Division who refused to come up to join their fellow comrades were the cream of its armed force preparing for a second armed struggle in future.

Hung held on in the jungle. Guided by Mao Tse-Tung's armed revolution theory, he believed that the only course of revolution open to them was to seize political power by force by surrounding the city from the rural areas.

Although he did not criticise Bong and Wong Lee Seng for taking part in Op Sri Aman, he was determined to see their armed struggle to the end.

However, the remaining members fi nally laid down their arms on Oct 17 1990, finally concluding three decades of armed communist insurgency in Sarawak.

PARAKU was the armed wing of North Kalimantan Communist Party (NKCP), a communist based in Sarawak founded on Sept 19, 1971.

Before that, the group operated under the name of Sarawak Communist Organisation led by Wen Min Chyuan, previously a leading member of the Sarawak United People's Party from 1960-64.

 

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